196 Anthropogenic stressors and the marine environment: From sources and impacts to solutions and mitigation

Hajji A.L., Lucas K.N. (2024) Marine Pollution Bulletin, 205, art. no. 116557,  DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2024.116557

ABSTRACT: Human-released contaminants are often poorly understood wholistically in marine ecosystems. This review examines the sources, pathways, impacts on marine animals, and mitigation strategies of five pollutants (plastics, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, bisphenol compounds, ethynylestradiol, and petroleum hydrocarbons). Both abiotic and biotic mechanisms contribute to all five contaminants’ movement. These pollutants cause short- and long-term effects on many biological processes genetically, molecularly, neurologically, physiologically, reproductively, and developmentally. We explore the extension of adverse outcome pathways to ecosystem effects by considering known inter-generational and trophic relations resulting in large-scale direct and indirect impacts. In doing so, we develop an understanding of their roles as environmental stressors in marine environments for targeted mitigation and future work. Ecosystems are interconnected and so international collaboration, standards, measures preceding mass production, and citizen involvement are required to protect and conserve marine life.

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