91 Development and Field Application of a Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Films Passive Sampler for Monitoring Three Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives and One Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in Waters

Ren S., Li L., Li Y., Wu J., Dou Y. (2024) Water (Switzerland), 16 (5), art. no. 684,    DOI: 10.3390/w16050684

ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) derivatives are widely present in the environment, and some are more hazardous than their parent PAHs. However, compared to PAHs, PAH derivatives are less studied due to challenges in monitoring as a result of their low concentrations in environmental matrixes. Here, we developed a new passive sampler based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) to monitor PAH derivatives and PAHs in waters. In the laboratory study, the XAD18-DGT device exhibited high adsorption rates and was demonstrated to be suitable for deployment in environmental waters on the timescale of months. The diffusion coefficients, D, were 5.30 × 10−6 cm2 s−1, 4.51 × 10−6 cm2 s−1, 4.03 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 and 3.34 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 for 9-fluorenone (9-FL), 1-chloroanthraquinone (1-CLAQ), 9-nitroanthracene (9-NA) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively, at 25 °C. The DGT device’s performance was independent of pH, ionic strength, deployment time and storage time, indicating it can be widely used in natural waters. In the field study, the target pollutant concentrations measured by the DGT are in good accordance with those determined via grab sampling. Then, the DGT devices were utilized to quantify PAH derivatives and PAHs in several rivers in Hefei, China. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using the DGT technique to detect trace PAH derivatives and PAHs in waters. 

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