174 A refined deep-learning-based algorithm for harmful-algal-bloom remote-sensing recognition using Noctiluca scintillans algal bloom as an example

Liu R., Cui B., Dong W., Fang X., Xiao Y., Zhao X., Cui T., Ma Y., Wang Q. (2024) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 467, art. no. 133721, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2024.133721

ABSTRACT: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are challenging to recognize because of their striped and uneven biomass distributions. To address this issue, a refined deep-learning algorithm termed HAB-Ne was developed for the recognition of HABs in GF-1 Wide Field of View (WFV) images using Noctiluca scintillans algal bloom as an example. First, a pretrained image super-resolution model was integrated to improve the spatial resolution of the GF-1 WFV images and minimize the impact of mixed pixels caused by the strip distribution. Side-window convolution was also explored to enhance the edge features of HABs and minimize the effects of uneven biomass distribution. In addition, a convolutional encoder-decoder network was constructed for threshold-free HAB recognition to address the dependence on thresholds in existing methods. HAB-Net effectively recognized HABs from GF-1 WFV images, achieving an average precision of 90.1% and an F1-score of 0.86. HAB-Net showed more fine-grained recognition results than those of existing methods, with over 4% improvement in the F1-Score, especially in the marginal areas of HAB distribution. The algorithm demonstrated its effectiveness in recognizing HABs in different marine environments, such as the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and northern Vietnam. Additionally, the algorithm was proven suitable for detecting the macroalga Sargassum. This study demonstrates the potential of deep-learning-based fine-grained recognition of HABs, which can be extended to the recognition of other fine-scale and strip-distributed objects, such as oil spills and Ulva prolifera.

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